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Shape Manufacturing Methods
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Shape Manufacturing Methods

Shape Alliance member companies offer a variety of manufacturing processes. You can learn more about each of these processes here.

Casting

Alloy
Brass & Bronze
Centrifugal
Iron

Cold Drawing Hollows
Solid Shapes
Extruding  
Hot Forging  
Shape Processing  

Casting: Alloy - Coronado Steel

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Casting: Brass & Bronze - Concast Metal Products

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Casting: Centrifugal - Miller Centrifugal Casting Company

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Casting: Iron - Wellsville Foundry

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Cold Drawing : Hollows - Pennsylvania Cold Drawn

Cold drawing involves pulling steel tubes over an inside die (called a mandrel) and, at the same time, through an outside die. This process results in extremely close ID, OD and wall thickness tolerances. Cold drawing also improves the surface condition of the tube, and can be used to create interior or exterior shapes, such as square or hexagons.

The Process:
Steel tubes are heat treated to improve workability, and then "pickled," cleaning them in an acid bath. Once cooled, the tube is "pointed," squeezing one end smaller to fit the jaws on the cold draw machine.
The internal die, called a mandrel, is inserted and then the jaws begin to pull the hollow tube over the mandrel and through an outside die. An area of reduction of 20-35% is normal for cold finishing.
After cold drawing, the tube is annealed to relieve internal stresses and straightened. The tubes are then cut to length, cleaned in an acid bath, dipped in a rust inhibitor and bundled for shipment.

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Cold Drawing : Solid Shapes - Contours, Ltd.

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Extruding - American Extruded Products

The Process:
The extrusion process can produce pipe, hollow shapes or solid shapes in long lengths. The starting raw material is a large diameter bar of the required grade of steel. These bars are cut to the appropriate billet length to produce the desired finish length. Dies are produced with the contour of the shape cut in the die. The billets are heated to 2100 to 2300 before being put into the water hydraulic press. The billet is rolled in crushed glass (which acts as a lubricant) and put into the extrusion press container. The press ram applies 2500T of pressure to expand the billet to fill the container. The billet is then forced through the die in one to five seconds. As the material is forced through the die, it takes the shape of the die profile. The long lengths are then annealed if necessary; stretch straightened; shot blasted; bump straightened and detwisted as required; acid pickled if a stainless grade, inspected for tolerances and shipped.

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Hot Forging - Broch Adler Umformtechnik

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Shape Processing - LMC, Inc.

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